The inflammation that leads to the lesion of the glans penis and its foreskin is called balanoposthitis. This disease is quite common among males. It can occur in acute or chronic form and in most cases has an infectious etiology. The most formidable complication of this pathology is the infringement of the glans penis with the foreskin, which is called paraphimosis.
Most often balanoposthitis occurs among persons in the younger age group. According to various data, the proportion of such inflammation accounts for from five to fifteen percent of all urological pathologies. Another important point in this pathological process is that with a long course it can lead to a decrease in the sensitivity of the glans penis and further problems with potency.
As we have said, the infectious flora most often plays its role in the occurrence of this disease. In this case, the inflammatory reaction can be caused by both specific and nonspecific pathogens. Specific flora is represented by gonococci, trichomonads, pale spirochete, and so on. Among non-specific pathogens most common are streptococci and staphylococci. In some cases, provoke the development inflammations can be herpes viruses, human papillomavirus, as well as fungi belonging to the genus Candida.
There are a number of factors that increase the likelihood of balanoposthitis. First of all, they include promiscuous sex life and a low level of personal hygiene. In the event that a person pays little attention to the hygiene of the genitals, between the foreskin and the head of the penis there is an accumulation of smegma and dirt, in which pathogenic bacteria reproduce well. In addition, this inflammation can be a consequence of the use of aggressive detergents or lubricants that have an irritating effect. The presence of phimosis and chronic infectious foci in the body also contribute to the occurrence of this pathology.
In rare cases, the disease can develop without the participation of infectious factors. It occurs in diabetes, psoriasis, lichen planus, as well as the development of an allergic reaction to any substance.
The first balanoposthitis is divided into acute and chronic form. In acute form, the clinical picture is accompanied by pronounced signs. In the event that the treatment of an acute pathological process is not carried out, there is a high probability of its transition to the chronic form. In chronic form, the symptoms are more moderate.
In addition, this inflammation can be catarrhal, erosive, pustular, ulcerative and gangrenous. The most favorable prognosis has a catarrhal variety. It is characterized by a superficial inflammatory reaction, which, as a rule, does not lead to a significant deterioration in the general condition of a sick person. In an erosive variety, the affected area is covered with rather deep and painful erosions. The pustular-ulcerative type is accompanied by the formation of multiple pustules, which over time turn into ulcers. Gangrenous variety is difficult, with severe intoxication. It implies the occurrence of necrotic lesions, leading to the perforation of the foreskin.
Symptoms associated with balanoposthitis
Initially, a sick person pays attention to the appearance of pain and a burning sensation in the area of the glans penis. On examination, the presence of edema and pronounced hyperemia is detected. There are symptoms such as raids, having a dirty white color, and in some cases – small papules.
As we have said, the erosive variety is accompanied by the formation of deep and painful erosions. They are characterized by a bright red color and a fairly large size. The skin surrounding these erosions is macerated. It is worth noting that with catarrhal varieties, erosive defects can also form.However, they are much more superficial. Often, there is an increase and tenderness of the lymph nodes located in the groin area. In some cases, the erosive variety is accompanied by symptoms indicating general intoxication of the body.
In the case of a gangrenous variety, a sick person first of all begins to complain of a significant increase in body temperature, general weakness and indisposition. Initially, erosions appear on the surface of the glans penis, which quickly enough transform into ulcers with areas of necrosis. The affected area swells and reddens significantly. After healing of ulcers, scars remain in their place. This type is often complicated by the narrowing of the foreskin (phimosis).
Diagnosis and treatment of inflammation
As a rule, the diagnosis of this disease is based only on the accompanying clinical picture. Additional research methods are used only to identify the pathogen. These include bacteriological culture, PCR diagnostics, and more.
Treatment of inflammation for balanoposthitis is primarily carried out with the help of antibacterial, antiviral or antifungal drugs. Local therapy is reduced to baths with disinfecting solutions, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory ointments. In the event that the pathological process is complicated by phimosis, it may be necessary to perform a surgical intervention.
Preventing the development of the disease
For prophylaxis the occurrence of this disease is recommended to abandon unprotected sex and casual relationships, maintain a high level of personal hygiene, as well as promptly identify and treat existing infectious foci in the body.